Towards Big Freeze and Beyond


 

Dr. Henryk Frystacki, May 2021

Travelling faster than Light with Fuel of Dark Energy

The following model shows a possibility to store unimaginably large amounts of energy, where time, space and any physical processes, according to our current knowledge of physics, cannot be observed. According to this model, it seems that our entire universe has the ability to disappear - to simply not exist anymore. However, breaking this equilibrium, leads to space, time and all forms of matter.

A deeper exploration of the dynamic features of this model will enable us to recognize that it may be possible to design and build spaceships, which continuously eliminate small layers of empty space right in front of them, when on the journey towards their destinations. Under such circumstances, the spaceship only needs to reach a certain speed, that will carry it fast enough through this eliminated layer. This is feasible, as long as such a manipulated situation can be maintained. The influences of time dilation and length contractions of the special theory of relativity are small, as long as the speed of the spaceship remains far below the speed of light. In this case, empty space, which has been eliminated for a short period, will be simply non-existent and irrelevant to these calculations.

 

The sequential application of the elimination process of space layers then shortens the distance to far planets that may be light years away. An observer on Earth who evaluates the spaceship's flight, would interpret this situation that the vehicle is travelling with a speed beyond the speed of light.

 

Abstract

 

A new theory and its accompanying model are seemingly capable of completely describing the dominant role of dark energy in the construction of our universe and all processes - from the origins to a predicted end.

 

The model uses equivalent forces of compression and decompression to describe noticeable and predicted influences of dark energy on spacetime and its baryonic matter. Compression and decompression in the entire system are generated by relative time dilations and length contractions, preventing four separated parts of dark energy to spontaneously interact.

 

The description goes far beyond the barriers of Planck length and Planck time to be able to accurately display the overall balances of all participating forms of energies. The model has been cross-checked for full compatibility with the general theory of relativity, which is demonstrated with an explaining figure.

 

A simple rotational geometric model with dark energy, split into four areas, shows the entire picture. Energy oscillations and energy waves can be simply derived from the model as relativistic circular functions.

 

This relativistic picture of the model does not require curved manifolds of the theory of relativity to display the basic principles: This is only necessary when looking at smaller sections of spacetime with distributed matter or for precise calculations of the total developments. The same is valid in quantum physics.

 

The separation of dark energy into four sectors is derived from an assumed equilibrium of four opposing parts of dark energy with an extreme tension before the Big Bang. The four sectors of dark energy appear with features of spacetime, gravity, electricity and magnetism, after breaking up the equilibrium. A forced rotation of dark energies in the model across the entire system produces baryonic matter, some with features of electric charges and magnetic spins and others being neutral. A picture in the descriptions demonstrates this situation.

 

One part of the huge dark energy wave, 25% of the total energies minus some contributions to matter production, is phase-shifted by 180 degrees and thus acts as a huge gravity field in addition to the gravity of assumed 5% of produced baryonic matter out of 100% dark energy: an alternative to dark matter may have been found.

 

The theoretical possibility of an elimination of small space layers is mentioned. This can actually be done, using the principles of the rotational model, with appropriate interventions. Speed faster than light could be achieved this way, without any contradiction to the theory of relativity.

 

According to the model, the universe ends with another complete blockage of dark energies, once all other energies are transformed back into dark energy. Space and time will disappear in an instant to prepare for a new start. The model shows that all four parts of the huge dark energy wave can force such an equilibrium by reaching their maximum amplitudes only because the 'against each other' 90 degrees phase-shifted' parts are 100% blind energies in relation to each other, having no effect from one to the other.

 

The Model

 

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Figure 1: Superposition of 4 phase-shifted identical oscillations

'Figure 1 demonstrates in a simple manner the superposition of four identical oscillations of initially unknown energy with the same frequency and the same amplitudes. Just for the purpose of a better differentiation, these oscillations are formally separated in four sectors of a circle, although they have a direct effect on each other. Later we will see that their possibilities to interact are limited due to the relativistic impact of time dilations and length contractions, requiring enormous energies to cross the boundaries.

 

The oscillations differ only due to the phase shift by +/- 1/4 th of their wavelength, comparing one sector with the following, either clockwise or counterclockwise.

Let us assume that according to the 'conservation of energy law' of physics the energies of the oscillations are always fully retained because of relativistic issues and that they only change their forms of energy, as high as the level of energy may be, even if all energy of the universe would have been stored this way. The oscillations of opposite sectors with a phase shift of 1/2 of their wavelength will apparently cancel each other out completely, which is called a destructive interference. If the energy cannot vanish because of relativistic circumstances, the system is building up an incredible amount of tension in a state of an absolute equilibrium. The potential energy is unimaginably high.

In this case, we are unable to label the axes in figure 1 with physical quantities or properties, because there is no noticeable physical activity. Apparently, nothing exists at all, no time and no space. Related to the entire universe, the system is currently in a ‘Big Freeze Mode’. This may be the case before a potential Big Bang of birth.

We could use only two opposing sectors instead, with two identical oscillations with a phase shift of a 1/2 of their wavelength. The result would be the same. However, the 4-sector model will become tremendously active, if a relatively small disturbance breaks up the labile equilibrium of a standstill.

The first claim of the model is that space and time will completely disappear, as soon as the model reached the Big Freeze status: The unimaginably huge size of space until the complete cooling of an empty universe at the absolute zero point of temperature will vanish in an instant without any trace with all its developed content of dark energy, if only 4 oscillations of figure 1 are setting again an equilibrium. The portion of dark energy is again at a level of 100%.

The second claim of the model is that seemingly empty space is not empty at all, but contains amongst known energy also unknown dark energy. We will discuss other contained energy below.

The third claim of the model is that it is possible to actively influence limited thin layers of empty space in a way that an equilibrium mode will be forced, resulting in a complete elimination of this layer. This missing space is non-existent for the short period of this technical intervention in all aspects of contemporary physics, meaning it plays absolutely no role in the calculations of the theory of relativity.

These three claims pave the way to design and build a spaceship which could be capable to jump across empty space over lightyears. Let us go deeper into the model to discover approaches to potential engineering solutions for our dark energy drive. One aspect became already very clear. We do not create a wormhole with extreme energy, but quite the opposite, withdraw remaining thermal energy of empty space and any other forms of energy, except dark energy. This way we try to achieve a ‘Limited Freeze Status’ to eliminate sequentially space layers in front of our spaceship. We deal with dark matter later, as it is essential.

Now, we bring action into the equilibrium of suppressed oscillations by assuming an interference which is strong enough to break up this energy package which is not yet existent in time and space. For this purpose, let us assume that the entire energy of the universe has been stored as dark energy, because only then, for the moment of the Big Bang, we can recognize the overlapping of phase-shifted oscillations, which is responsible for the production of all kinds of matter and for the establishment of the physical quantities of the four axes of our Cartesian coordinate system.

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Figure 2: Disturbance of the equilibrium with dramatic consequences

The following points are essential for the appearance of a universe:

The unknown zero point of the starting model without any physical quantities is shifted at least to a position lp, tp, because only then time calculations are possible and a universe with three spatial dimensions will become visible. Thus, the universe is born. lp represents the unimaginably small Planck length with no noticeable physical processes below and tp the corresponding unimaginably short time interval of a Planck time.

The three axes get physical quantities. t for the time, l for any length or distance in our 3-dimensional space. l1,2,3 serves as summary of all three directions of 3-dimensional space with three mutually perpendicular axes of a Cartesian coordinate system. l1,2,3 can be used, if effects on all three lengths are equal.

The axes of the resulting universe with lengths l1,2,3, time t, energy compression co and energy decompression d are defined with a certain angle counterclockwise, in dependence of the sum of all new energy forms that have been generated during the process of the Big Bang and that now counteract the dark energy. In the following figure 3 we will recognize the reason for this necessary rotation of axes. The interaction with a 1/4-wavelength shifted oscillation will be not as violent as interactions of 1/2 wavelength phase-shifted oscillations in the hatched areas.

Matter vortexes manifest initially as hot plasma. Cooling down, they will develop to first light atoms and electrons. Later, they develop in blast furnaces of supernovae explosions into the entire periodic table of the elements with extreme rotations of energies in our relativistic model. Today’s estimation that 100% of dark energy has produced roughly 5% baryonic matter, allows us to calculate the total area of superposition and therefore also the total quantity of dark energy in an equilibrium state. The question why there is dark energy at all, will remain an unsolvable puzzle.

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Figure 3: Relation with Special and General Theory of Relativity

In figure 3, we start any observation in the newly created system with axes l1,2,3 ,t, co and d as reference system. The zero point has been shifted into lp, tp, because a very first Planck length and a very first Planck time became existent and because this way, we take into account that there are continuous developments below these barriers which we need for our energy balance. We remember that most of the dark energy has never left zones below the Planck barriers after the Big Bang, only the superimposed parts and that these major portions of energy can only be perceived indirectly by space inflation and by dark matter.

In case we would take the very first lp-tp-leap not in negative but in positive directions we completely fail to balance counteracting forces and energies. The influences of axes co and d always remain between the original unidentified zero point and the very first shift point to lp and tp, even though the axes co and d seem to go across this area. These two axes show merely a direct comparison of the levels of relative energy compression and relative energy decompression in relation to the timeline and distances in space.

Any length l1,2,3 and time t are not recognizable for the predominant energies, hiding below Planck limits for length and time. Below Planck’s perception limits neither time nor length can exist, but surely a unique form of relative compression co and decompression d, mostly beyond precise knowledge according to our standard model of physics, with the exception and the excerpt as general theory of relativity, needing compression co for space-time curves, and quantum physics, needing compression co and decompression d for probabilities of whereabouts of particles. The existence of dark energy and dark matter are just a best guess because of certain cosmic observations in order to explain space inflation and the stability of galaxies.

Any point in the universe can be selected as zero point for observations. In this particular observation, the time measurement starts with time zero. At the own inertial system of observation, any change will only be observed after sequential completion of Planck times and, looking at lengths, simultaneously only in distances of Planck lengths.

Quantum physics that describes movements and probabilities of particles with partial differential equations are not necessary for this level of basic model discussions. We look at macrocosmic developments and sum up counterreactions below time and space thresholds. Eliminating space, however, will need quantum physics.

Introducing a second Cartesian coordinate system with l’1,2,3, t‘, co‘ and d‘ with a rotation angle shows in a simple way but precisely the theory of relativity for very simple processes of increasing energy. In case an object with a mass and placed on the l1,2,3-axis gains energy, may be by relative speed or increasing mass, then we will notice a counterclockwise rotation of the l‘-t‘-system of this object, which corresponds precisely to this change.

The rotation in figure 3 from a starting position P1 to a position P2 precisely represents the results of a calculation with the special theory of relativity for relative length contraction and time dilation for relative speed along a straight line, if we evaluate the projections on the original axes as shown in the figure. A spaceship pilot would measure a shorter distance to the destination along l‘, which corresponds exactly to the projection length on axis l. A length contraction has been detected. The pilot recognizes in parallel that less time is needed for the trip, given by the projection result on the original t-axis. His or her time line has been stretched exactly as described by the time dilation of the special theory of relativity.

This rotation and the result of length contraction and time dilation is valid for any type of aggregation of energy, also for masses. As masses fill our 3-dimensional space, all three space coordinates have to be taken into consideration for the evaluation of changes. In case of an evenly spherical mass all three spatial coordinates are affected equally. Therefore, l1, l2, und l3 can be summarized and simplified as l1,2,3. If mass is spread unevenly and including relative speed in various directions, each space axis has to be calculated independently, as it is used for GPS-corrections in dependence of the height above sea level.

The formulas of the general theory of relativity describe these situations very precisely. Using the space-time-rotation model, only very simple constellations and effects on spacetime become visible by simple geometry: Coordinates for space location and time move already in this simple rotation model along arcs and not along straight lines as demonstrated in figure 3.

For complex calculations it is advantageous to exchange the straight Euclidean metric with curved manifolds of spacetime, as the general theory of relativity actually does. For our purposes it is enough to realize that relative energy compression co causes the well-known curves of spacetime, which results in attracting gravitation between masses. Until today, no possibility has been discovered to shield this force.

The combined system of all relevant energies continues its clockwise rotation from a starting position and current position, until, after an unimaginable long time period, it reaches the Big Freeze position. Returning into equilibrium, space and time vanish within an unimaginably short time frame across the entire universe. Once more there will be neither time nor space until a new start takes place, just turned by a quarter of a wavelength in relation to the last starting situation. After two cycles an antimatter universe should appear, after four cycles with matter as today. This is only valid, if disturbances of the equilibrium do not trigger an accidental new start, but in following modes. The type of the very first cycle is definitively accidental.

In conclusion, a short introduction into the four in reality superimposed sectors and their assumed functions.

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Figure 4: All 4 oscillation sectors have an effect on each other in the space l1,2,3 and along the timeline t

A complex superposition of oscillations across the entire system, below and above thresholds of appearing length and time, can be sufficiently discussed with a division into four sectors, with astonishingly different functions and effects, just for the purpose to identify technical intervention possibilities to manipulate empty space in a way that it will disappear long enough to jump across. We are unable to utilize formulas of the standard model of physics for areas below the Planck barriers for length and time. Therefore, we introduce an equivalent of compression co and decompression d to describe relativistic effects on spacetime and on the other involved areas of the model.

We divide the system into the sectors ST, E, M and G-H. ST stands for spacetime, E for an area that is capable to produce electrical fields and electrostatic when interacting with ST. This is deducted from the fact that time dilation until a relative standstill of time in relation to the time on timeline t allows static behavior of electric charges. If we rotate an inertial system not counterclockwise 90 degrees for static behavior but clockwise to the maximum of 90 degrees, the theoretical relative speed should instead of a positive value, have a negative one. From this point of perspective, with a negative speed of light, the sector ST seems static and frozen. Observed in ST initiated energy fluxes at speed of light should manifest. Only magnetic spins and magnetic fluxes can show these features. Sector M is very dynamic and offers an endless potential for technical innovations on the base of quantum physics.

The most complicated part is certainly the sector G-H. G stands for gravitation, H for Higgs field. This sector is the only one with two negative axes in relation to ST and stays permanently below the thresholds for time and lengths. Most of its contained energy has never passed this boundary, which means that its influences are only indirectly observable in ST. Merely at Big Bang and supernovae explosions its oscillations have crossed even the opposite sector ST.

This is, where it becomes exciting, because counterclockwise rotations of subsystems l‘ - t‘ reflect an increase of energy, clockwise rotations a decrease, while it is the opposite way for G-H just because of its two negative axes. A counterclockwise rotation results in decompression towards axis d and a clockwise rotation compression towards axis co. This leads to exotic functions and processes, because the entire sector with all its dark energy has got the feature of gravity, exactly like masses in spacetime ST. Assuming that the dark energy of the sectors E, ST and M drives the actual position of the total energy axes clockwise, sector G-H holds against it. 75% of dark energy minus roughly pro rata produced, estimated 5% of matter are kept in check by 25% of energies of the sector G-H, forcing dark energy to slow down the clockwise rotation towards a Big Freeze. The gravity of all 5% of visible masses is contributing as well. The fascinating fact of these findings is that it is also a part of dark energy that slows down rotation, simply because of its positioning. Only reaching the Big Freeze status aligns the oscillations, erasing the universe in one fell swoop. Having the effect of gravity, the 25% of energy of sector G-H will generate halos according to the spreading of masses across entire galaxies. It may, therefore, represent dark matter, being obviously no matter but dark energy with inverted impact on the expansion of the universe. Matter with electrical charges and magnetic spins get these features during their generation processes from sectors E and M.

The calculations of the impacts of a seeming ‘dark matter energy field’ is simple: Let us hypothetically assume a universe without any matter, then it will be still curved according to the formulas of the general relativity, because one quarter of the entire dark energy has turned into a dark matter energy field, evenly spread across the entire universe. If we add now 5% visible mass, we end up exactly with the situation of our universe. In the calculations, we have to take into account that the dark matter energy field is initially behaving like an evenly distributed mass but then locks in entire galaxies with their uneven distribution of stars and solar systems, due to the construction of the galaxy and according to the formulas of general relativity.

Sector G-H, with its inverted energy effects, is then also capable to catalyze atomic nuclei and their subatomic elements. Therefore, it is the perfect candidate for the Higgs field. Sector G-H is awarded with the function of strong interaction in atomic nuclei because of its immense compression and position completely below the thresholds of direct perception since the beginning of time, except its initial contributions to Big Bang matter production and accompanying supernovae explosions. Sector E and sector M are consequently awarded with the function of weak interactions. Under this aspect, atomic nuclei parts would be firmly anchored in G-H during production. The feature of gravity of the entire sector G-H indicates this assumption. Electrons with electric features from E and magnetic features form M move freely in ST and are captured by atomic nuclei to achieve electric balance. Electrons can be produced in pairs with positrons with enough electromagnetic energy and forced spacetime rotation. This is already current state of technology.

 

The dark energy of ST behaves like a huge increasing wave of negative energy in relation to the positive matter energy, expanding ST. The dark energy of G-H, shifted by 180 degrees, can be imagined as a huge decreasing wave of negative energy, trying to stop this expansion. This part of dark energy, with its two negative axes in the system, is acting together with all positive energies of all matter in exactly the same rotation direction, trying to slow down space extension.

 

This constellation is also responsible for the inertia of masses, if they are accelerated in ST. G-H works against this acceleration. In the general theory of relativity an inertia has been postulated as the principle of equivalence. The model makes this equivalence visible.


Figure 4 indicates why gravity cannot be shielded in contrary to electric and magnetic fields and if there could be a solution: The problem seems to be the situation that electric and magnetic fields are generated by adjacent 1/4-wavelength shifted sectors, gravity, however, by curves of spacetime and thus interactions with the opposite 1/2-wavelength shifted sector G-H. Shielding gravity needs a solution for this different situation.

A short outlook towards experimental confirmations and engineering of a dark energy drive faster than light:

 

The first step is the experimentally accessible proof that galaxies are stabilized by inverted dark energy.

The final confirmation of the model can be realized through a precise length measurement with a laser. The elimination of a layer of space with forced equilibrium of dark energy for a short time should result in measuring a shorter distance as before and after. In a space laboratory, above earth the measurement would be easier to accomplish as in a laboratory on earth.

The grand finale of the project would be the design and construction of a spaceship that is capable of a sequential space reduction in front of its destination direction and which is capable to jump through temporarily eliminated space. Then, other habitable planets may be on our doorstep and we could observe if they are suitable for a population.

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